**George Darwin** (born July 9, 1845), the son of Charles Darwin, devoted much of his professional efforts to the study of the Sun-Earth-Moon system. He conjectured that the Moon had formed from material pulled by tidal action of the Sun from the primordial Earth. He studied the dynamics of rotating liquids (motivated by his theory of lunar formation), and is credited with being “the first to apply mathematical techniques to study the evolution of the Sun-Earth-Moon system.” [MacTutor]

Mathematicians with birth or death anniversaries for the week of July 6 through July 12:

July 6: Birthdays of Alfred Kempe [1849] (four color theorem) and Lothar Collatz [1910] (differential equations, Collatz Conjecture)

July 7: Deaths of Gösta Mittag-Leffler [1927] (analysis), William Young [1942] (measure and integration), Anatoly Ivanovich Malcev [1967] (logic, group theory), and Raymond Wilder [1982] (foundations of mathematics)

July 8: Deaths of Johann Müller (Regiomontanus) [1476] (trigonometry), Christiaan Huygens [1695] (astronomy, probability), and Kurt Reidemeister [1971] (knot theory)

July 9: Birth of George Darwin [1845] (three body problem); deaths of Henri Padé [1953] (continued fractions) and Arend Heyting [1980] (intuitionism)

July 10: Birth of Roger Cotes [1682] (logarithms, interpolation); death of Emory McClintock [1916] (actuarial math)

July 11: Birth of John WIlliam Scott Cassels [1922] (number theory); deaths of Nicole Oresme [1382] (infinite series, coordinate geometry) and Simon Newcomb [1909] (mathematical astronomy)

July 12: Birth of Ernst Fischer [1875] (the Riesz-Fischer Theorem)

Source: MacTutor

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