It is the 50th edition of the Carnival of Mathematics, celebrating over two years of Mathematics Carnivals! This edition is hosted by John D. Cook of The Endeavor and instead of the expected commentary on the number 50, it focuses on the letter L in mathematics. This carnival also stood out in that John used a bunch of pictures to illustrate the posts. All in all, a great Carnival!

## Archive for February, 2009

### The Big L: The 50th Carnival of Mathematics

February 28, 2009### NUMB3RS Puzzles

February 26, 2009There’s a new addition to the math-fights-crime TV show NUMB3RS. This season, the folk at Wolfram have created a math puzzle that goes along with each episode of the show.

For example, in *Scan Man*, the passage

Charlie: I’m not sure an Error Correcting Code is gonna get you there — That is what you’re using, right?

Amita: …And have been for weeks.

inspired the following puzzle:

*A spy captures a code key (first block) and two 17-character mathematical messages. Unfortunately, almost nothing seems to match the key. Can you decipher the two messages, and also find the third hidden 17-letter phrase?*

*Image used with permission from Wolfram Research, Inc.
*

The puzzle is here with tabs for a hint (my experience is that the hints are pretty useful for solving the puzzle) and for the quote in the show that inspired the puzzle. There’s also a link to the solution.

If you’re feeling bad because you love the puzzles but you missed one of the inspiring episodes, fear not! You can watch **the entire season** online! Hooray for online television! (I don’t know how long they’ll be up, so you probably should get watching while you work on those puzzles. Clearly this is more important than doing/grading the homework or working on the project you were about to get to.)

There’s a little more background information (including a correction to one of the solutions) in Tuesday’s post on Wolfram’s blog.

Happy Solving!

### Juxtaposition: Millionaire Triangles

February 24, 2009There was a math question on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire yesterday! According to this transcript of the February 23 game, this was the $50,000 question:

Named for the mathematician who designed it, a famous “pyramid” of numbers that starts with the number one on top is called what?

A. Fibonacci’s triangle

B. Pythagoras’s triangle

C. Pascal’s triangle

D. Fermat’s triangle

The correct answer is Pascal’s triangle. But it got me thinking, what would the other triangles look like? We’ve actually posted before on Fibonacci’s Triangle: as envisioned by Doug Ensley, it’s a triangle with Fibonacci numbers down each side and with each interior number equal to the sum of the two numbers above it (as with Pascal’s triangle). This is also called Hosoya’s triangle, according to wikipedia (named after Haruo Hosoya, who wrote about it in *The Fibonacci Quarterly* in 1976).

So what about Fermat’s triangle — what would that look like? Since Fermat numbers are numbers of the form , a natural adaptation to Fibonacci’s triangle would be to have the Fermat numbers on the outside, and to use sums of numbers to fill in the inside. This looks like of funny, though — the numbers on the outside grow much faster than those on the inside.

What has me stumped is the notion of Pythagoras’s Triangle. Would it have something to do with Pythagorean triples? Maybe it would be a tetrahedron rather than a flat triangle, with a 1 on top, and then a Pythagorean triple beneath it — say the iconic 3, 4, 5 — and then…then I’m stumped. What would come next? Is there even an ordering for Pythagorean triples? (Well, maybe: TwoPi wrote earlier about how every Pythagorean triple can be written as , for positive integers *u* and *v*, so we could put an ordering on *u* and *v* and retrict ourselves to the primitive triples.) But I’m not sure how to generate the entire tetrahedron.

Then again, for a Pythagorean triangle, perhaps we could just draw a right triangle and call it a day.

*Incidentally, the link to the transcript also has commentary about whether Pascal’s triangle was the only reasonable answer. The consensus seems to be YES, if only because the question referred to a “famous” triangle “pyramid”.*

### Language Puzzles, Part II

February 23, 2009Yesterday I referred to some Linguistic problems that could be solved just like mathematical puzzles, by finding patterns. I was talking to Batman at work today and it turns out that there is a whole Olympiad dedicated to puzzles just like that! Yes, it’s the International Olympiad in Linguistics, aimed at high school students, and you don’t have to be multilingual to enter. The most recent one was the 6th Annual IOL, which took place in Bulgaria August 4-9, 2008.

You can find links to the 2008 problems and solutions (in 9 different languages) on this page. There are five individual problems [worked on in a 6-hour time block] and one team problem.

Here’s one from the Individual Contest:

Problem #5 (20 points). The following are sentences in Inuktitut and their English translations:

1.. (Your dog saw you.)Qingmivit takujaatit

2.. (The boy shot the doctor.)Inuuhuktuup iluaqhaiji qukiqtanga

3.. (You hurt yourself.)Aanniqtutit

4.. (The doctor cured you.)Iluaqhaijiup aarqijaatit

5.. (You speared the dog.)Qingmiq iputujait

6.. (The shaman cured a doctor.)Angatkuq iluaqhaijimik aarqisijuq

7.. (The polar bear came.)Nanuq qaijuq

8.. (Your doctor cured your boy.)Iluaqhaijivit inuuhuktuit aarqijanga

9.. (The hunter speared the wolf.)Angunahuktiup amaruq iputujanga

10.. (The dog hurt your teacher.)Qingmiup ilinniaqtitsijiit aanniqtanga

11.. (You fell.)Ukiakhaqtutit

12.. (The hunter shot a polar bear.)Angunahukti nanurmik qukiqsijuq(a) Translate into English:

13..Amaruup angatkuit takujanga

14..Nanuit inuuhukturmik aanniqsijuq

15..Angunahuktiit aarqijuq

16..Ilinniaqtitsiji qukiqtait

17..Qaijutit

18..Angunahuktimik aarqisijutit(b) Translate into Inuktitut:

19. The shaman hurt you.

20. The teacher saw the boy.

21. Your wolf fell.

22. You shot a dog.

23. Your dog hurt a teacher.NB: Inuktitut (Canadian Inuit) belongs to the Eskimo-Aleut family of languages. It is spoken by approx. 35 000 people in the northern part of Canada. The letter r denotes a ‘Parisian’ r (pronounced far back in the mouth), and q stands for a k-like sound made in the same place. A shaman is a priest, sorcerer and healer in some cultures. —Bozhidar Bozhanov

Sadly, registration for NACLO 2009 [the North American Computational Linguistics Olympiad, which is the preliminary contest for North Americans hoping to go to the International contest] closed just a few weeks ago, on February 3. That site, however, has a page of links to other practice problems and solutions, so you can still work on these at home. The Babylonian problem is very much like one I do in the first week of the semester in a Math for Liberal Arts class, and many of the others are similar in tone to the problem quoted above and in yesterday’s post.

*Map showing Bulgaria posted by Rei-artur under the GNU-Free documentation license. *

### Language Puzzles

February 22, 2009I’m totally stealing today’s post from another blog. But I feel OK about that because One, if I don’t do that then there won’t be a post today at all, and Two, it’s a really neat post.

Tanya Khovanova posted this past Thursday on Lingustic Puzzles. In it, she included five puzzles she’d tranlsated from the Russian book *200 Problems in Linguistics and Mathematics *and. For example, the first problem is:

Problem 1.Here are phrases in Swahili with their English translations:

- atakupenda — He will love you.
- nitawapiga — I will beat them.
- atatupenda — He will love us.
- anakupiga — He beats you.
- nitampenda — I will love him.
- unawasumbua — You annoy them.
Translate the following into Swahili:

- You will love them.
- I annoy him.

There’ a lot about linguistics that I find fascinating, and I really enjoyed reading these different puzzles (and I’m totally giving them to the seniors in my Problem Solving class this week).

*Photo of Pater Noster in Kiswahili published here under the GNU FDL.*

### There’s a new Carnival in Town!

February 20, 2009Posted today is the inaugural edition of a new Carnival: Math Teacher at Play. This carnival is the brainchild of Denise at Let’s Play Math, who wanted a gathering that focused on posts that were appropriate to teaching elementary school through high school mathematics. Because this is complementary to the Carnival of Mathematics, it will appear every other Friday, when the Carnival of Mathematics is not in session. This means that we’ll have Math Carnivals every Friday — hooray!

The Carnival will initially be hosted at Let’s Play Math, but Denise welcomes other hosts. This first edition has 20 entries (wow!) gathered by Denise, and I look forward to reading them all!

*The photo above is from Diliff (posted under GNU-FDL) and it actually shows a crowd at a carnival in Nottingham, but I’m sure that they would have wanted even more to be at this carnival. *

### Hyperbolic Light

February 19, 2009A friend of my parents recently sent me a short article entitled “The Shape of Lamp Shade Shadows” by Kenneth E. Horst (*The Physics Teacher*, Volume 39, March 2001). In it, the author explains how a friend of his wondered if the shape created when light goes through a lampshade might be hyperbolic:

*Disclaimer: There’s a much better photo in the article itself. This one makes our living room look much browner than it actually is. Also much cleaner.*

Horst then collected data, analyzed it, and discovered that yes indeed, each curve was in the shape was a hyperbola! In fact, if is the vertical distance from the center of the lightbulb to the circular opening on the top or bottom of the lampshade, and is the radius of the opening, and is the horizontal distance from the center of the lightbulb to the wall, then the equation of the hyperbola is:

(with a negative added for the bottom curve). The top and bottom curves typically come from different hyperbolas, however, because while is the same in both cases, the top of the lampshade typically has a smaller radius than the bottom; likewise, the bulb is usually closer to the top than the bottom.

In addition to the data evidence that it is a hyperbola, there’s a geometric reason: the light that leaves the top (and bottom) can be thought of as a cone with vertex in the center of the light bulb, and the wall acts as a vertical cross section:

With this in mind, it might be possible to create the other conic sections by tipping the lampshade (or moving the entire lamp) so that the wall is in different positions relative to the cone of light. I’m also tempted to build a lampshade that has completely vertical sides with the lightbulb right in the center, so that the top and bottom curves are both part of the same hyperbola.

*Thanks to Ted Foster for sending me this article!*

### a and 1/a

February 18, 2009In the last Carnival of Mathematics, two of the number facts were:

- 1/49 is the sum of the series 0.02+0.0004+0.000008+…
- 49 is the sum the series 0.98+0.98
^{2}+0.98^{3}+…

(Incidentally, I originally tried to put parentheses around the 0.98, but having an 8 and ) next to each other made the end format as 8) and that looked pretty funny.)

It turns out that it’s not a coincidence that the ratios in the two geometric series (0.02 and 0.98 ) add to 1. As proof, suppose that:

The first term and ratio of this geometric series both equal and so the series sums to . But we said this series was equal to so it follows that

, which is the sum of the geometric series whose first term and ratio both equal . In other words,

Not the most exciting fact in the world, but still intriguing.

[As a further aside, if is an integer then it turns out that . For example, and therefore . I’m not sure if this makes the series more or less interesting, so I’ll pretend the answer is more.]

*Blame Credit for this post actually goes to TwoPi, who first came up with the sums for 49 and 1/49 and who noticed the pattern of adding to 1. Credit for the photo goes to Arjan Dice; it’s published here on Wikipedia.*

### The 49th Carnival of Mathematics!

February 13, 2009It’s the Carnival of Mathematics, here to brighten your weekend and chase any winter blues or summer sadness away. There are forty-nine eleven great posts, which we’ve interspersed with facts about the number 49.

Our very first post is Ethnicity, Religion, and War, courtesy of Fëanor at Jost a Mon, in which a statistical approach to history aims to show that if an Ottoman sultan’s mother was of European origin, the likelihood of him attacking Europe dropped by several percent. Since “Religion” is part of the title, it might be worth mentioning that the period of “49 days” is significant in many religions: the Buddha, for example, meditated for 49 days and in Christianity the Pentecost is 49 days after Easter. [The 50 implied in the word Pentecost comes from inclusive counting.]

Next up, Rod Carvalho presents Distance between two words at Reasonable Deviations, which shows how to measure the distance between two words of the same length. He introduces a graphical approach to make things more intuitive, and includes Python source code so readers can generate word graphs. We can trust Rod to be truthful about his Python (code), unlike the people who spread the story five years ago that an almost-49 foot Python snake was captured in Indonesia. That would have been the largest snake ever found, but the python turned out to be only half that length.

It’s now time for a reading break. If you were curious about the book *Is God a Mathematician?* by Mario Livio, you’ll be delighted to know that Arj reviews it over at Science on Tap! Driving, like reading, is a leisurely activity and if you’re ever in San Francisco (maybe for the Joint Mathematics Meetings next January!) you might use 49 Mile Drive, a scenic route that winds its way through the city.

Break’s over! Rémy Oudompheng now treats us to a post on computer assisted computations in algebraic geometry with Experimental Algebraic Geometry I: the Grassmanian over at Embûches tissues. Speaking of computations, the fraction 1/49 can be written as 0.02+0.0004+0.000008+… . For that matter, the number 49 can be written as the geometric series 0.98+0.98^{2}+0.98^{3}+…

Next, David asks the question, “Is it possible to make a toroidal polyhedron in which all faces are equilateral triangles and all vertices have six incident edges?” The answer appears to be no, but in Flat equilateral tori? at 0xDE he shows a colorful model that comes close. These might look good in a motion picture — perhaps one put at by Dreamworks Animation, the company founded by the 49^{th} richest American (David Geffen).

Mike Croucher now presents Quadraflakes, Pentaflakes, Hexaflakes and more from Walking Randomly, which shows lots of different fractal flakes. These flakes won’t make you cold like the snowflakes that have been covering a lot of the northern hemisphere lately, including Alaska, the 49^{th} state in the US.

The fractal flakes above aren’t the only thing that blend the familiar with the unusual. The calculus of finite differences has remarkable similarities to ordinary calculus, but yields a few surprises itself, as illustrated by John Cook in Finite differences at The Endeavour. The number 49 is (4+3)^{2}, a familiar fact, but it’s also the 4^{th} smallest number with 3 factors.

Le’ts move on to games! Burak Bilgin shows how game theory applies to economics, and how you can benefit from a simple rule derived from it, in The Simple Rule of the Economics Game from Distiller’s Corner. A simple fact about 49 is that it is 23 base 23.

Next there’s Math: A Different Perspective at Foxmaths! 2.0, in which Foxy derives some nice approximations for a complicated summation; these prove to be rather nice approximations indeed. The moral is to really stop and think about the math, do the math, rather than treating math as an abstract object. With sums in mind, it’s pretty simple to verify that 49 can be written as 1/24+2/24+3/24+…+49/24.

Now we hit a snag: this next post was submitted by Dave Richeson, but it’s on the blog bit-player that seems to be by Brian Hayes. Are secret identities being revealed? Whatever the case, the post Long division has lots of neat division. Not the “4 goes into 12” kind, but the kind that divides an entire continent — in this case, North America. There are pictures included that look like they were based on photos taken from out in space. Space is where the space shuttle Endeavor might be in mid-May; its first flight was STS-49.

Finally, we end with vlorbik’s Section 5.5: A Manifesto, which he refers to as a “lengthy rant about pre-calc text” on Vlorbik on Math Ed. And we’ll end the 49 trivia by noting that 49 has an interesting connection with the numbers π and *e*:

The sum of the first ten decimals of π^{e} is 49.

The sum of the first ten decimals of ln(π) is 49.

With that, our Carnival comes to a close. Thanks to all who submitted!

*Balloon photo by wwskies.*

### Unzipping the Klein Bottle

February 10, 2009The Klein Bottle. I remember first learning about it, and it was, well, hard to visualize. (“Self intersecting? The outside and inside all the same? Hanging out in four-dimensional space? Ummm, okay.”) Then I discovered ACME Klein bottles, and they made my life happy because I could sort of understand what a Klein bottle was, and because their web page is fun to read. Plus, they sell Klein Steins:

(Godzilla finished his beverage before I got a chance to photograph it.)

One feature of a Klein bottle is that it can be made from two Möbius strips. Another thing that was hard for me to picture (though again Clifford Stoll at ACME comes to the rescue), but I just ran across this video of a Klein bottle that had been made by zipping together two Möbius strips, and I thought it was so neat that I wanted to share it. I might just have to figure out how to work the sewing machine just so I can make one.

(And really, I’d just intended this post to end here, but then I found the following clip and couldn’t resist adding it!)

*ACME Klein Bottle photo by Lethe, published under GNU Free Documentation License.*

### Carnival #49 this Friday!

February 9, 2009We’ll be hosting the Carnival of Mathematics #49 on Friday the 13^{th}, so send in your submissions by midnight Thursday (which really means early in the morning Friday)! You can post them in the comments here, or use the official form (which seems to be working fine — I’ve been getting submissions that way), or send them by email to hlewis5 followed by the @ sign followed by naz.edu.

### Ode to Eday

February 7, 2009Today is *e*-day — the day that millions come together worldwide in praise and glory of the number *e*, which is approximately 2.718…

But this is not the only *e*-day. Indeed, there are many others that appear to have nothing at all to do with the number*.*

- In Paducah, Kentucky E-day falls on February 21 and refers to Engineers Day. They have an egg drop contest, tape people to walls, and create edible cars.
- January 1, 2002 was Euro Day, when a whole bunch of countries simultaneous adopted the Euro. Right now 1 Euro is worth 1.2944 US dollars according to Google. Speaking of Google, did you know that their Zurich office has twirly slides, fireman poles, and meeting rooms in the shape of igloos?
- eDay in New Zealand is the day that people can get rid of their e-waste (which to me sounds like spam, but means old computers). Old electronics get sent out to recycling places instead of the landfill.
- And then there’s my favorite: the island of Eday in northern Scotland, one of the Orkney islands.

131 people live there (as of last summer), and the main exports have been peat and limestone (and pirates! Or at least one pirate: John Gow). They have a new Heritage and Visitor Centre, and enough B&Bs for a local tourists. There is however, no evidence of a “Spend*e*-day on Eday!” marketing campaign — they might want to try that.*

*Using the 2 July version of *e*-Day, presumably. Though today it’s a balmy 34°F up on the isle, so perhaps it could be a biannual tradition.

*The fancy e was created by Acf and is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.*

### Is a Square a Rectangle?: Welsh edition

February 6, 2009Answer: No.

I’ve posted before about how even though in the US we define squares to be equilateral rectangles, there are many forces (often in the form of picture books on shapes) that treat squares and rectangles as distinct beings, and so it is really no surprise that many students reach college a little uncertain. The mathematical definition doesn’t match the cultural one.

Anyway, this week in *Geometry *I was going over Euclid’s definitions, and I pointed out that he wrote explicitly that rectangles (oblongs) weren’t allowed to have four equal sides, which is different than the definitions we use today.

Then one of my students spoke up. Katie is a senior math major getting certified to teach elementary & middle school, and this past fall she did part of her student teaching in Wales (courtesy of a study abroad program here at the college). She was in a 5th grade class, and according to their formal curriculum squares are not rectangles. Indeed, Katie said that the definitions they used were pretty much the same as what appears in the translation of Euclid (rectangles have four right angles but can’t be equilateral; rhombi have four equal sides but can’t have right angles; parallelograms have parallel sides, but can’t be equilateral **or** have right angles).

Similarly, when she taught about diamonds, she couldn’t call them squares even if they had four equal sides and four right angles. She had to prove the same rules twice (say, that the diagonals of a square are equal, and that the diagonals of a equiangular diamond are equal) and when she drew them, she had to add a line to show whether the figure she was referring to was a square or a diamond.

That explains this Failblog post from last October:

more fail, owned and pwned pics and videos

(I’m not sure if this picture was from Wales, but she did see Shreddies in the store there. She really liked the frosted kind.)

So now I’m wondering: how are geometric figures (squares versus rectangles and the like) defined in other countries?

*The image above is from Oliver Byrne’s way-cool color edition of Euclid’s Elements. *

### Dollars or Cents?

February 5, 2009I saw this video today on Failblog. It’s almost 3 minutes long, and has made the rounds — it’s from December 2006 — but it’s still amusing to listen to the consumer trying repeatedly to explain that yes, there is a difference between $0.002 and 0.002¢, and to further explain to the manager that this was a matter of fact, not a matter of opinion.

(The Verizon consumer, George Vaccaro, had been quoted a rate of 0.002¢ per kilobyte while in Canada. He’d used 35893 kilobytes, but was charged $71.79 instead of $0.7179.)

According to this Verizon page, they now quote it as “$0.002 per KB or $2.05 per MB” (which are not quite equivalent, but at least not off by two orders of magnitude).

You can read the full story here. Verizon officials did eventually admit that the rate of 0.002 cents/KB was incorrect, and his money was refunded.